Nobel Prizes in Classical Medical Research I
For the rejuvenation and recovery of body cells for a select few, medicine will face a major breakthrough over the next 20 years.
Medicine Nobel Prizes that are about influencing cells and genes
Thomas Südhof, James Rothman and Randy Schekman a Nobel Prize. The three scientists will be honored for their insights into transport systems in cells. Defects in the transport system form the basis of immune diseases, diabetes, tetanus and disorders in the hormone system as well as in the nervous system and many other diseases.
John Gurdon (Great Britain) and Shinya Yamanaka (Japan). Their research has shown that mature adult body cells can be restored to their former state and then turned into desired, specialized, younger and healthy ones of their own e.g. Nerve, heart, kidney cells are transformed.
Bruce Beutler (USA) and Jules Hoffmann (France) a Nobel Prize for work to alert the innate defense system. Ralph Steinman, Canada, discovered cells that activate the acquired immune system.
Nobel Prizes in Classical Medicine Research II
Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak (all USA) for cell aging research. The scientists discovered and characterized the enzyme telomerase, which is important for the stability of the human genome.
Mario R. Capecchi, Oliver Smithies (both US) and Sir Martin J. Evans (UK) for a genetic technique to create human disease in experimental mice.
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello for a technique that allows Gene to be muted.
Sydney Brenner (United Kingdom), H. Robert Horvitz (USA) and John E. Sulston (United Kingdom) for the study of programmed cell death (apoptosis).
Leland H. Hartwell (USA), Sir Paul M. Nurse (UK), and R. Timothy Hunt (UK) for evidence on cell division.
Arvid Carlsson (Sweden), Paul Greengard (USA) and Eric Kandel (USA) for their discoveries on signal transmission in the nervous system.
Günter Blobel (USA) for his work on the transport of proteins in the cell.